How does metabolism work?
Metabolism (aka metabolism) is a set of all chemical reactions that take place inside the body and provide vital functions. It consists of catabolism (destruction of larger structures to smaller ones) and anabolism (construction of smaller particles of larger structures).
Let's say a person decided to eat a hamburger. He did not have time to prepare, and the smell of fresh cutlets already tells the brain that food is coming. Active cells of the stomach, intestines, pancreas, liver begin to work - to release digestive juices with active enzymes to "meet" the hamburger. Well chewed and soaked in saliva, the hamburger enters the stomach, and then - in the small intestine, where the main "digestion" takes place - the breakdown of complex molecules of proteins, fats and carbohydrates to the simpler and their absorption through the intestinal wall in the blood (catabolism).
The proteins are broken down to amino acids, carbohydrates to simple sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose), and fats to triglycerides. Even in food there are vitamins and minerals, they too may undergo some transformations in the stomach and intestines to work well in the body.
When the hamburger has turned into a mixture of amino acids, simple sugars and triglycerides, these small molecules begin to actively penetrate through the intestinal wall into the bloodstream and lymph, and from there spread through the various organs and tissues in all cells of the body. In the cells, these substances enter into chemical reactions: if you need to build a new structure - there is one reaction (and it will be anabolism), if you need to get energy - the other works, if you want to destroy the damaged cell - the third, etc. As a result of such reactions, some substances with the help of vitamins, minerals, hormones, hormone-like substances are transformed into others. And the products of these reactions are either built into the body structure or removed through the excretion organs (kidneys, liver, lungs, intestines, skin).
Billions of reactions take place in the body every second. To ensure these reactions take place, we need to provide just six groups of nutrients - protein, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and water. And this must be done in such a way as to obtain all essential elements in sufficient quantity, but not to create a chronic excess, which will lead to excess weight.
What can indicate a metabolic problem?
Most pathological processes are somehow associated with certain metabolic processes that have occurred in the body not as intended. Therefore, a metabolic disorder can occur at any level: both locally in a certain organ (if it is inflamed), and in the whole body (what happens, for example, in metabolic syndrome). These are the problems that are often associated with metabolic disorder.
Fluctuations in weight. Normally, it happens all the time: if the weight fluctuates between 5-6 kg during the year - this is normal. Fluctuations in weight during the day are usually due to fluctuations in water in the body, the amount of food eaten, empty or empty intestines. Because of these factors +- 1.5-2 kg can be easily seen on the scales (during the New Year holidays, this figure can be even more). If a person noticed that in 2-3 months he suddenly gained 10 or more kilograms without any visible reasons - this is an excuse to consult an endocrinologist.
Fatherhood. If a person with fluctuations in weight observes constant swelling on his legs, fingers, and face - this is a serious reason to check on his health.
Suddenly, a food allergy. Because of the inflammatory process in the intestine, the wall may become permeable to large molecules, a person suddenly may have an allergy or intolerance to the products that he used to quietly eat. This means that there is a failure in metabolism.
An increase in insulin levels. Abuse of sweets may lead to higher insulin levels. This will cause the cells to stop responding to insulin and start to "starve" (insulin resistance), which is definitely a metabolic disorder.
Problems with stools, bloating stomach. This may be a sign of metabolic disorders of certain food components - you should check with a gastroenterologist. Here is a simple example: with age, the enzyme that breaks down lactose has disappeared, so when a person drinks milk, he begins to bloat, flatulence and chair disorders. This may indicate a disturbance of lactose metabolism. By the way, quite often, disorders of the digestive tract can also be associated with psychological problems: then, a gastroenterologist, after conducting research, can send to a psychologist.
Deterioration of the skin, rash. Changes in the skin are often found if a person is fond of "garbage" food, although the rash can appear also because of individual intolerance to perfectly normal products, such as oranges. If there is such a problem, try to keep a food diary and note the skin condition. Over time, it may be possible to find a connection between the symptom and a certain food.
Excessive sweating. This symptom may indicate a hormonal, age-related or hereditary disorder.
Sleepiness, lethargy. This condition is found in people who have often resorted to diets and food restrictions: metabolism may be in the mode of energy conservation and reserve in case of hunger. Hunger, prolonged caloric deficiency over 500 kcal is a serious stress for the metabolism and the psyche. Metabolism in this case does not spoil, but rather adapts to the environment and lifestyle. So it turns out that the more diets a person has in life, the higher is the risk of overweight. If you are constantly experiencing lethargy, drowsiness, you should go to an appointment with an endocrinologist and check the thyroid gland.